Government/Economics/Society and Urban Planning/Sustainability

Applying Structural Equation Modeling to Analyze the Mutual Causality between Perceptions of Corruption and Trust in Public Institutions

Eduardo Alencar
Social Ecology
Low trust in government appears to be a global phenomenon and a challenge to effective governance. From empirical literature, trust is both related to cause and consequence of corruption. Based on data from the 2017 America Barometer survey, this article empirically explores the relationship linking trust and corruption in Brazil and Mexico. Because the endogenous relationship between trust and corruption may violate the assumptions of ordinary least squares (OLS), simultaneous equations model (SEM), as proposed by Morris & Klesner (2010), could be addressed. This article analyzes the mutual causality between perceptions of corruption and trust in public institutions and explores potential insights.


Place-making in displacement: a cultural-ecological assessment of post-disaster temporary housing in Southern California

Mariana Garcia Junqueira
Urban Planning and Public Policy
Distinct stages of housing are often employed in post-disaster situations. However, Quarantelli (1995) defines temporary housing as a physical structure that serves the function to shelter people after a disaster occurs until they are resettled in a permanent place to live. While trying to provide economically-sound solutions in a timely manner, formal and informal sectors have invested in standardized and technological solutions. Yet, these have been often considered inappropriate (Lizarralde & Davidson, 2006), and even rejected by local recipients (Oliver, 2003). Some scholars have placed responsibility on planners and designers’ neglect of cultural values and on the lack of understanding of users’ needs (e.g., El-Masri & Kellet, 2001; Oliver, 2003). The low-level of acceptance of housing solutions provided as aid can be considered a failure in disaster response, presenting a need for further investigation. By looking at temporary housing provided by the formal sector in the aftermath of the latest Southern California wildfires, though a cultural-ecological approach to planning and design, this study seeks understanding, from the users’ perspectives, of how they interact with and assess the suitability of the temporary housing. Some leading questions are: What issues are foremost in the minds of those displaced? What is it about the temporary housing design that works for them? In what ways is it not appropriate? If the design is unsuitable, what adjustments are they making? By using the Naturalistic Field Research as a method, this study emphasizes strategies employed in the field of Design Ethnography (e.g., design-focused observations, interviews, and walk-through sessions). This study emphasizes the importance of discovering users’ values and needs while contributing to disaster response literature and practice, planning and design processes, and solutions. Incorporating lessons about appropriateness in future planning and design should facilitate the acceptance of temporary post-disaster housing while improving users’ quality of life.


Does emissions trading work? A formal test of the EU ETS & urban emissions reduction

Ben Leffel
Sociology
In a visually spectacular presentation, this study identifies (and maps) the location of 500,000 carbon trading transactions in the EU Emissions Trading System and tests them for effect against city-level greenhouse gas emissions change over time. Other city-level covariates are also explored, altogether offering a clear picture of if the carbon market “works”, and how other factors impact emissions reduction.


Behind Bars or in the Community? The Effects of Juvenile Offender Rehabilitation Programs

Lacee N. Pappas
Social Ecology-Core
The benefits of prevention and intervention programs for juvenile offenders continue to be debated in both research and policy. Existing research shows variation around the circumstances that contribute to the strongest reductions in recidivism for these offenders. Using a rigorous and systematic methodological approach, this overview of reviews explores the effects of rehabilitation and other intervention programs for juvenile offenders. The present research integrates the findings of meta-analyses and systematic reviews (N=55) from a broad range of treatment programs. The mean effects from these reviews reveal that, overall, programs continue to have consistently positive impacts on reducing recidivism and that variation exists among institutionalized and non-institutionalized juvenile offenders.


The Mother of all Stock Price Bubbles: was it driven by credit?

Fabrizio Marodin
Economics
The boom in collateralized credit is historically considered one of the drivers of the 1920s stock price bubble in the US, but surprisingly there is no published research providing econometric evidence for this claim. Using a formal quantitative framework, I investigate how the credit boom interacted with fluctuations in stock prices and macroeconomic variables and how policy choices aimed at stabilization were ineffective. The results confirm the importance of credit supply to the build up of the bubble and to overall output growth during the decade.


Guardian Versus Warrior: An Empirical Investigation of Police Recruitment Videos in the United States

Rylan Simpson
Criminology, Law and Society
The recruitment and retention of police officers remains a priority for police agencies across the world. One of the primary means by which police attract applicants to their agencies is via their recruitment videos. No known research, however, has explored the characteristics of such videos or theorized regarding their effects on candidate selection. The present research, therefore, empirically investigates the characteristics of police recruitment videos from police agencies across the United States. The analyses reveal that much variation exists among the behaviors and philosophies highlighted in recruitment videos. I discuss such variation with respect to both theoretical principals, including the guardian versus warrior debate, and broader issues in contemporary policing.


Effects of Recreational Marijuana Dispensaries on Nearby Retail Rents

Andy Zanazanian
Economics
Using proprietary commercial real estate data from the CoStar Group, this paper is the first to estimate the highly localized effect of a recreational marijuana dispensary opening on nearby retail rents. In order to account for the potentially endogenous relationship between marijuana dispensary location and retail rents, the analysis focuses on Washington State, where recreational marijuana dispensary licenses were distributed via a lottery in 2014. Hedonic difference-in-differences modeling is employed, in which identification comes from comparing areas where a recreational marijuana dispensary opens, before and after its opening, to counterfactual areas where lottery losers would have potentially opened. The results are that the opening of a recreational marijuana dispensary has little to no impact on nearby retail rents, as the estimated effects across a variety of specifications and for various radii around actual and counterfactual dispensary locations are all small and statistically indistinguishable from zero. While there is some evidence of positive externalities in low-income urban areas, heterogeneous treatment effects are also moderate. This suggests that the spillover effects of recreational marijuana dispensaries onto nearby businesses are small or offsetting.

Location: Emerald Bay B Date: April 26, 2019 Time: 3:00 am - 4:30 am