School of Medicine
Background: In Orange County, CA 36% of 5th graders are overweight/obese and low-income minority youth are greatly impacted. Team Kid Power (KiPOW) OC is an academic-community partnership initiated in 2015 to support school health policies and coach 5th graders in Title I schools. It expanded in 2017-2018 from 10 to 20 weeks at Thorman Elementary where over 75% of students are in the Free or Reduced Lunch program and 95% are Latino.
Study Aims: 1. Assess impact of 20-week program on child health behaviors, Body Mass Index (BMI), systolic (sBP) and diastolic blood pressure (dBP), and mile run. 2. Conduct exploratory analyses of subgroup differences by sex, sports participation, and BMI category.
Methods: Quasi-experimental, pretest/posttest study design (no control). Volunteers met weekly with 5th graders to teach health lessons and provide coaching during lunch and recess (Total: 1400-min). Pretest/posttest evaluations included HABITS questionnaire, BMI percentile (BMI%), blood pressure, and mile run. Analysis: Two-sample paired t-test and Bonferroni correction.
Results: n=63, ages 10-11 years, 49% female, 29% participated in sports. Mean BMI%: 73.8 (pre), 71.3 (post), p=0.03. No significance identified for behaviors, sBP, dBP, or mile run in total group analyses. Significant findings in subgroup analyses included: Females: BMI% change -4.1%, p=0.03; Sports participation: dBP change -5mmHg, p=0.01; BMI% change +0.5, p=0.03; No sports participation: BMI% change -3.5%, p=0.02; Normal BMI: sBP change -4mmHg, p=0.02; Overweight BMI: BMI% change -3.3, p=0.03; Obese BMI: ‚Äúeats an extra meal‚Äù 75% (pre), 37.5% (post), p=0.01. Significance did not hold after Bonferroni adjustment.
Conclusion: KiPOW OC may have a differential impact on child BMI with variability among specific subgroups. Future studies will increase sample size to seek purposeful recruitment of 5th graders with consideration of sex, sports participation, and BMI category to better understand program impact.
Reginald Thomas Gardner
Since the first competition at Stanford in 1972 to the weekly, seasonal, and annual events today, from bragging rights to the prize pools of millions of dollars, esports has expanded significantly in the last few decades. The first college to officially sponsor esports players was Robert Morris University, who sponsored a League of Legends team in 2014. Since then well over 100 Teams have been recognized by the National Association of Collegiate Esports and hundreds more who remain unsupported but continue to compete. The train has left the station, so it is incumbent upon us to understand what competitively successful programs have in common.
Few researchers have outlined foundational characteristics of college esports programs, and none have suggested best practices for practitioners. Thus, this poster situates itself in the history of esports and examines a small sample of current programs recognized by the National Association of Collegiate Esports. The purpose of this work is to seek new and exciting questions that warrant investigation and to provide suggestions for practitioners seeking to develop esports programs at their home institutions. We found that current programs vary significantly which supports an observed willingness to try new things across all sizes and types of institutions, but observations also show that the games which institutions support, the esports arenas built, and the content broadcasted, are common among them.
To determine whether scaling decisions might induce fadeout of cognitive impacts in early education interventions, we reanalyze a well-known RCT of an early mathematics intervention which showed substantial fadeout in the two years following the end of the intervention. We examine how various order-preserving transformations of the scale affect the relative mathematics achievement of the control and experimental groups by age. Although fadeout was generally robust, we can eliminate fadeout by treating variation in achievement near the norm for first-graders as important and as unimportant elsewhere. Adopting this perspective would have substantial implications for interpreting the effects of educational interventions.
UCI School of Education
According to the 2011 NAEP, only 27% of all 12th graders and 1% of ELs scored at proficient or higher in writing. By analyzing a sample of not-pass (174 essays), adequate-pass (173 essays), and strong-pass (114 essays) text-based, analytical essays written by middle and high school students, this study sought to determine what characteristics, if any, might distinguish essays that are considered proficient from essays that are not so that teachers can better assist their students. Essays were drawn from the 2015-2016 Pathway writing and reading intervention pretests and posttests. Results revealed that the use of relevant summary was an important difference between not-pass and adequate-pass essays where significantly more adequate-pass essays used summary in a purposeful rather than general way. In contrast, major characteristics that set apart strong-pass essays from adequate-pass essays involved providing analysis and including a clear conclusion or end.
Earth System Science
International efforts to avoid dangerous climate change require large and rapid reductions of fossil fuel CO2emissions worldwide, 42% of which emissions were produced by the primary power sector in 2015. However, the rate of emission decreases from the power sector may be constrained by the lifetime and economic operating cycles of existing infrastructure. Using projections of electricity from fossil sources in several hundred energy-emissions scenarios based on the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways, we evaluate the implicit lifetime and utilization rates of power infrastructure and compare these with emissions and mitigation rates under different operational assumptions. We find that the average lifetimes of coal-and gas-fired power plants in scenarios with 1.9 and 2.6 W/m2of radiative forcing are in both cases <10 years, which is several decades less than such plants have operated historically. Allowing required plants to instead operate with historical capacity factors and lifetimes would result in roughly 200 Gt of additional CO2emissions this century, which may be incompatible with mean warming <2°C unless compensated by commensurate (and in most cases additional) negative emissions. Ambitious climate mitigation scenarios thus entail drastic and perhaps unappreciated changes in the operating and/or retirement schedules of power infrastructure.
Master of Public Policy Program, School of Social Ecology
In this study, we explore the rapid growth of shared electric scooters (e-scooters) that has become a new transportation phenomenon in cities across California since 2017. The high demand for the convenient and cheap mode of mobility has motivated e-scooter companies to quickly deploy a fleet of shared scooters and flood the city sidewalks. Due to the fast pace of technology, local government has struggled to regulate e-scooters which have raised safety concerns with sidewalk riding and injuries to riders and pedestrians. In July 2018, for instance, the city of Newport Beach banned the shared mobility companies from operating as a response to these concerns. The aim of this study is to provide case studies and best practices on e-scooters to help the city of Newport Beach make an informed decision to either permit or prohibit shared mobility services in the near future. This research investigates case studies of twelve cities in California. Five of the twelve cities are those that have prohibited while seven are those that have permitted shared mobility companies to operate within a jurisdiction between September 2017 and March 2019. We find that pilot programs have helped regulate and enforce the use of e-scooters, increased safety for riders and pedestrians, replaced car trips and reduced traffic congestion. In addition, interagency collaboration and multijurisdictional partnership demonstrate best practices to develop consistent regulatory jurisdiction. Finally, the findings can help the city of Newport Beach assess the costs and benefits of e-scooters in cities across California to make an informed decision to either prohibit or permit shared e-scooters in the near future.
Background: Cryolipolysis is an extremely popular procedure for people seeking non-invasive body contouring. As with any novel therapy in medicine, it is critical for providers to familiarize themselves with related adverse events (AEs), to provide appropriate informed consent to patients before treatment.
Objective: To describe reported complications and AEs associated with cryolipolysis.
Materials and Methods: A systematic review was completed using the PubMed database and search terms: “cryolipolysis” or “lipocryolysis” or “CoolSculpting”. Only randomized clinical trials, prospective cohort studies, retrospective studies, case series, and case reports describing AEs related to cryolipolysis, written in English were included for review.
Results: Fifty articles were included in this review with 3,303 patients total. The most common AEs associated with cryolipolysis were treatment site erythema, numbness or paresthesia, bruising, and edema. Erythema was reported in 871 patients, numbness in 301, bruising in 124, and edema in 82. More serious complications of cryolipolysis include dysesthesia (n = 57), severe or persistent pain (n = 49), paradoxical adipose hyperplasia (n = 22), skin hyperpigmentation, and motor neuropathy. Other uncommon reported events include skin blanching, vasovagal reactions, skin necrosis, cold blistering, painful indurations and cold panniculitis.
Conclusion: Cryolipolysis is a relatively safe option for patients seeking non-invasive body contouring. Although cryolipolysis-associated complications occur, they are extremely rare and usually resolve spontaneously. The most serious AEs include motor neuropathy, PAH and panniculitis at the treatment site. Physicians need to be aware of the possibility of cryolipolysis AEs and consult patients accordingly. Future studies should try to determine if specific AEs or complications are more common with certain treatment applicators, parameters or devices.
UCI School of Medicine
This community-based participatory study evaluates factors affecting nutrition and childhood obesity issues in the Watts community of South Los Angeles. Watts is an urban, underserved community with the lowest life expectancy in Los Angeles County. Obesity is the number one cause of premature death in the United States. The obesity epidemic in the U.S. has a higher prevalence in Watts and contributes to the relatively lower life expectancy of people living in Watts. 18% of children in the U.S. are obese while 30% of children in South Los Angeles are obese. The obesity problem is significantly affected by nutrition and physical activity. Awareness about nutrition can help reduce the incidence of obesity. To better understand nutritional intake and access to fresh produce in the Watts community, a health needs assessment of children under 18 was conducted. Participants were parents or caretakers of the children, 18 or older, residents of Watts, and had at least one child under age 18 in the household. The sample size was n=86 and SPSS was used to analyze the data. Over 25% of participants reported six or more servings of soda and sugary food consumed by the child per week. 30% of participants reported that children had three or more servings of fast food per week. The consumption of soda, sugary food, and fast food by children in this community contributes to the elevated childhood obesity rate seen in Watts. This information can help inform parents, health policymakers, and health providers about the nutrition of the children in this community. Furthermore, the results indicate a need for health education, nutrition policies, and nutrition interventions to raise awareness about nutrition and obesity. Policies relating to nutrition, such as menu labeling requirements, school bans on soda, and soda taxes, can help improve these nutrition and obesity issues.